Photography_Women

To celebrate Women’s History Month,  here’s a selection of the many documentaries on women photographers I’ve collected and shared over the years.

Plus, you’ll find links to quotes and image collections at the end.

Diane Arbus| View

Ruth Bernhard View

Laura Gilpin | View

Nan Goldin | View

Lauren Greenfield | View

Lois Greenfield | View

Annie Leibovitz | View 1 View 2

Sally Mann | View 1 | View 2 | View 3

Mary Ellen Mark | View

Cristina Mittermeier | View

Tina Modotti | View

Sarah Moon | View

Elizabeth Opalenik | View

Cindy Sherman | View

Joyce Tenneson | View 1 | View 2

View more on B&H’s Women Of Influence.

Find quotes by great women photographers here.

Find collections of 12 Great Photographs by women here.

1_BeforeAfter

Before and after the Gradient Map     

Whether used subtly or dramatically, Photoshop’s Gradient Map color adjustment tool can open up new ways of seeing and working with color for any artist. Photoshop’s Gradient Map assigns new colors to existing brightness values. With it, you can enhance existing colors, transfer colors from one image to another, or create entirely new color relationships. It can be wild!

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The Gradient Map

The Gradient Map interface looks difficult to use but with a few pointers you’ll find it surprisingly easy to use. While you can apply a Gradient Map directly to a layer (Images: Adjustments: Gradient Map), I recommend you apply Gradient Maps as adjustment layers (Layer: New Adjustment Layer: Gradient Map), to take advantage of both the greater flexibility and control you’ll gain over the final effect. Once activated, there are a number of default presets you can experiment with but it’s most likely that you will want to create your own. Simply click on an existing gradient in the Properties panel to activate the Gradient Editor. Click New. Click at the bottom of the gradient to add new colors. A pointer will appear, double click it or the Color box to choose a color. You can move the pointer to direct the color into different tonal values (Move left to target darker values and right to target lighter values. Alternately, enter a new number in the Location field.) while the diamonds left and right of it will control how each color fades into surrounding colors. You can add dozens of different pointers/colors, but for most applications I recommend you restrain yourself to as few as possible. You can delete a pointer/color by clicking on it and clicking Delete or by pressing the Delete key. When you create an effect you’d like to use more than once, type a Name and click Save; you can easily store, retrieve, and share these “grd” files.

The color effects you can generate with the Gradient Map are so powerful and so varied you simply must spend a little time experimenting with it to truly understand both how far you can go and how subtle you can get. Consider this kind of visual research time well spent.

After you’re done experimenting, then it’s time to deliver.

Working with the Gradient Map often takes a little finessing. You’re likely to be a little disappointed if you try and get the perfect colors with the Gradient Map alone. You can spend a great deal of time picking and repicking colors until you get it just right. Instead, try working more broadly, getting close to a desired effect and then fine-tuning the results.

BlendModes

Layer Blend Modes give more control

LayerStyle

Layer Style removes effects from shadows and/or highlights

Here are the go to tools for fine-tuning the results of Gradient Map adjustment layers. Use the Opacity slider to reduce effects that are too strong. For selective opacity, add a layer mask. Use Blend If sliders (double click on a layer to activate them) to reduce or remove effect from shadows or highlights or both. If transitions created by Blend If sliders aren’t smooth enough, use a luminance mask.

GradientMap_BlendMode

Normal and Hard Light blend modes compared

Blend Modes can be used to add more control over the way colors mix. In particular, focus on the color blend modes (Hue and Color) and the contrast blend modes (Overlay, Soft Light, and Hard Light). Hue restrains the effect to that element of color only. Color restrains the effect to both hue and saturation, removing any effect on luminosity. In order of increasing intensity, Soft Light, Overlay, and Hard Light boost contrast and gradient colors will have a more transparent appearance.

Even with all of this control, it’s likely that you’ll find the best results are most often achieved by using this tool to create an interesting color foundation and then refining it with additional color adjustment tools like Curves and Hue/Saturation.

Once you’ve mastered the interface the real challenge begins – visualizing color possibilities. Pre-visualization can only go so far; instead use software as a tool for visualization. Instead of rushing to a single finished result, I prefer to work on multiple copies of an image to make side-by-side comparisons of a set of variations. The possibilities are seemingly so limitless that you must perform some experiments to find the best solution. If your experiments are both targeted and iterative, then you’ll generate many solutions that are more likely to be optimum.

Here a little color theory can be useful. Use dark colors in shadows and light colors in highlights; otherwise you may posterize or solarize. Use analogous colors (similar color families) to create transitions; transitions between complimentary colors tend to get muddy. Variations on earth tones work well for both realistic and antique effects. Variations on warm colors can add intensity, even fire. Variations on cool colors can generate nocturnal and even aquatic effects.

Remember, you can sample colors from one image and apply them to another. Gradient Map effects are distributed based on lightness values so keep this in mind when selecting and transferring colors.

GradientMap_BW

Black and white conversion plus toning created with Gradient Map

Amazingly, you can even make successful color to black and white conversions with Gradient Maps – just use neutral colors. Again, for naturalistic effects, you’ll want to create progressions that move from dark to light, but the steps and the transitions in between can be varied substantially. Guard against posterization and excessive noise. You can even create black and white toning solutions with the Gradient Map; it’s excellent for split tone effects that target different hues into different tonal values.

Photoshop’s Gradient Map is an exotic color adjustment tool that can be a real game changer. If you truly understand the possibilities this tool opens up you will have learned to see in new ways. What could be more valuable?

Read more on Color Adjustment here.

Learn more in my digital printing and digital photography workshops.

Get to know Lauren Greenfield in these three interviews.

Find out more about Lauren Greenfield here.

View more Photographer’s Videos here.

B&H celebrates International Women’s Day with its Women of Influence series.

Cristina Mittermeier is an accomplished conservationist, wildlife photographer, and author, who has dedicated her life to education and outreach through the stories reflected in her photos. In this episode, Cristina shares her message of conservationism, an appreciation for natural splendor, and the relationship humans have with the wild.

Find out more about Cristina Mittermeier here.

View more Photographer’s Videos here.

2_Source

Source

3_Target

Target

 9_4Blended

Final Effect

MatchColor

Photoshop’s Match Color

Little explored and capable of opening up whole new frontiers in color adjustment, Photoshop’s Match Color is a tool every user should be aware of – even if it’s only to know what’s possible.

There are three primary reasons to consider using Match Color: one, to match two colors exactly; two, to remove strong color casts; and three, to creatively apply the color in one image to another.

Match Colors Precisely

When a precise color match is critical, for instance when matching the same products in two images, Match Color is hard to beat. And, in terms of easy of use, using it beats placing sample points and moving sliders to make the targets match. You can create statistics from and apply the effect to either an entire image or only a portion of an image using selections.

Remove Strong Color Casts

Match Color does an exceptional job of removing strong color casts. One of the primary reasons it was developed and most common uses for it is to remove the strong color cast in underwater images. It does an amazing job at revealing the complex color relationships below the color cast. Here, you don’t even need a source image. Just check Neutralize. If the effect is too strong you could use the Fade slider, but I recommend you apply the effect to a duplicate layer and use the Opacity slider of the layer or if you want to reduce the effect selectively, use a layer mask. Using this feature on images that don’t contain strong color casts often produces pleasing results too.

Create Complex Color Changes

This is where it really gets interesting. What if you took colors from a candy store and applied them to the sky? What if you took colors from a sunset and applied them to a landscape? What if … I know, I sound like a kid. You’ll feel like a kid when you use Match Color. It seems like anything is possible. When you first view the results, you’ll do a double or triple take. You have to see it to believe it.

The math is complicated, very complicated. The tool’s interface is simple and easy to use. Learning how and when to use it is deliciously challenging. With practice you can develop an intuitive feel for the direction color relationships will move in and start to think predictively when using Match Color, but the final effect it generates is usually so complex you have to see it to believe it.

4_Source2Target

Normal

5_Source2TargetNeutralize

Neutralize

Taming The Beast

Match Color samples the colors from one image and applies the resulting statistics to another image; all three elements of color Hue, Saturation, and Luminosity are taken into account in both the source and the target images. To do this a minimum of two files must be open at one time, a source and a target. Once saved, you can load these statistics in the future to any image, as long as it is in RGB. Match Color only works in RGB color mode. Not available as either a non-destructive adjustment layer or a Smart Filter, Match Color must be applied permanently to a layer, so consider applying it to a duplicate or composite merged layer.

You have limited controls over the results. The Neutralize check box; try it, you might like it – a lot. The Luminance slider; be careful of the image’s dynamic range when using it. The Color Intensity slider; in addition to saturation it also control how much variety in hue is generated – higher settings produces more of both. The Fade slider; it’s reduction of the effect is slightly different than applying the full effect to a layer and then reducing its Opacity, but the former cannot be localized so I prefer the latter.

One check box, Neutralize, and three sliders give you some controls over the results.

You can either use all the colors in an image or only colors within a selection in a source image to create statistics from; after making a selection in the source image go to the target image and in the Match Color dialog box check Use Selection in Source to Calculate Colors.

6_SourceSelection

One portion of source selected

7_SelectionTarget

Another portion of source selected

Alternately, you can modify the calculation by selecting a portion of the target image; after making a selection in the target image, apply Match Color and check Use Selection in Target to Calculate Adjustment. If you’d like to apply that effect to the entire image instead of just a portion of it, instead of applying the effect, check Save Statistics, then press Cancel, and when you reapply Match Color check Load Statistics.

8_2Sources

Two sources applied consecutively

You can even apply several statistic sets progressively to the same layer to create still different effects.

 MatchColor_Layers

Effect layered over original

BlendModes

Layer Blend Modes give more control

LayerStyle

Layer Style gives you still more control

You can use the many power of layers to control how the new colors blend with the old. Reduce the layer’s Opacity to restore some of the original color; add a layer mask to do this selectively. Use the layer’s blend mode to control how the new colors mix with the original colors; in particular try the blend modes Color and Hue, which will use the new hues with the original luminosities. Use the layer’s Blend If sliders to remove the effect from shadows and/or highlights; alternately, use a luminosity mask. Applying Match Color to a new layer gives you a safety net (You can always return to the original color.), allows you to easily compare more variations, and gives you more control.

One of the strategies that really makes this technique shine is to first create an interesting color foundation with Match Color and layer options and then refine the colors further with additional color adjustment tools.

Controlling the effect with more any precision is challenging. You can change the colors of either the source or the target images before creating and /or applying the statistics. Use any tool in Photoshop. The question is how? (Here’s one tip. Inverting colors before sampling them often generates interesting results.) Doing this involves a lot of trial and error. Yet, these color experiments can sometimes be profitable. Once in a while, they lead to real breakthroughs. At a bare minimum, they’ll encourage you to think more flexibly about color.

Match Color is an exotic color adjustment tool that can be a real game changer. Try it and you’ll see and think about color in new ways. What could be more exciting?

Read more on Color Adjustment here.

Learn more in my digital printing and digital photography workshops.

LensProfiles_Profile_425

Do you wish you could improve the quality of the images your lenses deliver after exposure? You can, using software. Adobe’s Lens Corrections feature uses a digital image file’s EXIF metadata about camera and lens to automate cures for standard lens distortions, including geometric distortion, chromatic aberration, and vignetting.

Using Adobe’s Lens Profile Corrections

You can access Adobe’s Lens Corrections in three locations; Adobe Camera Raw, Adobe Lightroom, or Photoshop’s Lens Correction filter. It’s far less destructive to make these types of adjustments to Raw files during rather than after conversion. It’s also more flexible as it can be removed or adjusted any time in Lightroom or in Photoshop if you acquire files as a smart objects. However, if you want to apply Lens Corrections within Photoshop, you can use the Lens Correction filter; you can even do this non-destructively by applying it as a smart filter.

In Lightroom and Camera Raw, in the Lens Corrections panel you’ll find two tabs under Lens Corrections; Profile and Manual. Start with Profile and then move to Manual.

LensProfile_ProfilePanel_425

Profile

Under Profile, you can check Remove Chromatic Aberration to eliminate color fringing on contours; if your lens produces them, and most lenses do to one degree or another, you’ll see them most easily in areas of high contrast and in the corners. Sometimes this feature removes chromatic aberration completely and sometimes only partially. When you need to go further, a not uncommon occurrence when dealing with specular highlights, click on Manual and look under Defringe to access the sampler and modifying sliders Purple Hue and Green Hue.

LensProfile_ManualPanel_425

Manual

Also under Profile, you can check Enable Profile Corrections to remove Distortion and Vignetting; both sliders are set to 100 by default, but you can modify these Amounts as you deem necessary. Distortion does an excellent job removing curvature of introduced by wide angle lens distortion often objectionable on horizons but alternately unnoticeable in macro shots. Under Manual, you’ll also find controls for Distortion and Vignetting that do not use metadata and are capable of more aggressive adjustment. While Distortion offers only control to slide between barrel and pincushion distortion, Lens Vignetting offers two sliders, Amount or the intensity of the adjustment, and Midpoint a control designed to affect the way the effect fades off. The anti-vignetting effect is often too strong, making the corners of the image appear too light, and requires some reduction of the default setting; set it to zero if you like the vignetting a lens produces.

Once you’ve verified that a lens profile works well, you can apply the lens profile corrections to all images shot with that camera / lens combination, simply by selecting the files you’d like to apply them to and syncing them. (Select the files in Camera Raw or Lightroom and click Sync, then choose only the settings you’d like to sync.) You can even apply Lens Corrections as part of a Preset that can be applied to any number of selected files with a single click, but be mindful that if you use this Preset during import in Lightroom this may slow the process of building previews somewhat.

Adobe Lens Profile Creator

Adobe provides support for a growing list of camera manufacturers, camera models, and lenses. If you purchase a recently released lens made by a major manufacturer that isn’t yet supported, it’s quite likely that Adobe will soon have a profile for it. You can access new lens profiles in updates of Camera Raw and Lightroom.

If Adobe doesn’t supply a lens profile for your particular lens you have three choices: adjust an existing profile; use a profile created by another user; or make your own custom lens profile.

First, you can visually adjust the parameters of an existing lens profile and save the new settings under a new name for future use. There’s plenty of room for user error with this method but it’s more efficient than creating manual corrections from scratch. Expect to check the results frequently when you apply these settings to different types of images.

Second, you may be able to access a lens profile created by another user with Adobe’s Lens Profile Downloader – http://supportdownloads.adobe.com/detail.jsp?ftpID=5491. Of course, these lens profiles will only be as good as the creators were diligent about creating them.

Third, you can create your own custom lens profile with the free Adobe Lens Profile Creator utility – http://supportdownloads.adobe.com/detail.jsp?ftpID=5489. Adobe Lens Profile Creator is a utility designed for photographers who want to create custom lens profiles for their own lenses. The process of creating a custom lens profile for your lens involves capturing a series of images of a printed checkerboard pattern with your specific camera and lens, converting that set of raw images into Digital Negative (DNG) file format (using the Camera Raw plug-in, Lightroom, or the free Adobe DNG Converter), and importing the raw DNG images (or JPEG/TIFF images when creating lens profiles for a non-raw workflow) into the Adobe Lens Profile Creator to generate a custom lens profile. If you create new lens profiles, you can share them with the rest of the user community on the Adobe Lens Profile Creator forums, publishing them directly from inside the Lens Profile Creator. These profiles will then be available via new versions of the Adobe Lens Profile Downloader. This is an extended and complex process few photographers will want to go through, but for those using unsupported cameras and lenses worth the time and effort in the long run.

This is a detailed discussion of what for most users amounts to checking two check boxes and possibly adjusting two sliders. Using Lens Corrections is fast and easy. In little or no time you’ll get substantially better results. If you’re serious about the quality of your photographs, you’ll seriously consider implementing Adobe’s Lens Profile Corrections.

Read more on Raw processing here.

Learn more in my digital printing and digital photography workshops.


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